Since the era of prophecy, Muslims have known police or security in the sense of guarding and anticipating the enemy, and since the battles between Muslims and polytheists in the Arabian Peninsula did not subside, especially after settling and migrating to Medina, the police became a necessary function to protect the capabilities of Muslims, their souls and their leader, the Prophet – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him -.
And if the Prophet – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him – was not different from his companions in appearance or form, so that the Bedouin would come and the Prophet among his companions, but he would not recognize him and say: “Which of you is Muhammad”?! Because of his modesty and the simplicity of his life and the lives of his companions, and that is why the police in that era did not have a specific form, nor a specific dress, nor a known mission like the one we know today. The Aws and Khazraj, the Ansar and the Muhajireen, the Muslims and the Jews, find from its articles: “The pious believers will have their hands on each of them who transgresses or seeks to spread injustice, sin, aggression or corruption among the believers, and that their hands are all against him, even if he is the son of one of them.”
It is understood from this paragraph that the task of supervising security and order was carried out by Muslims in general, as the responsibility is collective, but this matter developed over the course of days in the era of prophecy and then in the era of the rightly-guided caliphs afterwards. How was the police of the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace -? What were the most important functions of the police or security during the era of the Rightly Guided Caliphs after him? Was this police known of any kind of infringement on people’s rights and money? That is what we will see in our next lines.
We knew that the concept of security in the state of Madinah, the emerging Muslim state in the Arabian Peninsula, which will become the capital of the Rashidun Caliphate later, was collective. He was with him in the tent, and Saad bin Muadh was one of those who stayed at the tent of the Messenger – may God bless him and grant him peace – to guard, he says to the Messenger – may God bless him and grant him peace -: “Oh, Messenger of God, what prevented us from asking the enemy for renunciation in reward, nor cowardice from the enemy, But we were afraid that your place would be invaded, so that the horses of the polytheists and men of their men would incline against you, and the faces of the people from the Emigrants and the Ansar had stayed at your tent.”
After the defeat of the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud in Shawwal of the 3rd year of the Hijrah, and the return of the Prophet – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him – safely with his companions to Medina, “the faces of Khazraj and the Aws in the mosque were at the door of the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, guarding it, dispersing (for fear) from the Quraysh that they would repeat  It attacks Medina by surprise, day or night.
With time, the Prophet – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him- realized the importance of guarding and ensuring security in the city and beyond. He appointed a special guard to protect security and the leader of the city and the Muslim community, the Messenger of God – may God bless him and grant him peace. A man from among the Companions for this mission until the death of the Prophet – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him-, and we find him during the Battle of the Trench in Shawwal 5 AH, always guarding the Prophet – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him – his tent with his men.
He says about this difficult atmosphere in which the city was besieged by the Quraysh, Ghatfan and their allies, and his awareness of the importance of security and guarding the Prophet and following all security developments with care and attention: on (mountain) commodities.” At that time, Muhammad bin Maslama set out to find out the truth about these horses, whether they belong to the Muslims or the polytheists of Quraysh and their allies, and made Ubad bin Bishr in his place guarding the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace. Salama bin Huraish was upon her, so I went back to our place, then Muhammad bin Maslamah said: Our night was in the trench during the day until God released him.”
These positions from the Prophet’s biography indicate that the police in the era of the prophethood meant guarding, and that achieving security in its general sense was a collective function, and this confirms that Anas bin Malik, may God be pleased with him, said: “Qais bin Saad Al-Khazraji was in the hands of the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace. He, peace be upon him, has the status of a policeman from a prince.” This Qays was one of those with a strong build and a huge body, and perhaps he was chosen to guard the Prophet – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him – based on these physical characteristics that we see today in some of the security men and the police from the private guards.
The truth is that the companion Anas bin Malik, the servant of the Messenger of God, had lived a long time and realized more than half the life of the Umayyad state. What happened after him, because the owner of the police was not present in the Prophet’s era with any of the workers (employees), but it happened in the state of the Umayyads, so Anas wanted to approximate the condition of Qais to the listeners, so he likened him to what they know” .
The concept of the police developed and became closer to order and specialization due to the great and dangerous challenges that arose after the death of the Prophet – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him – in the year 11 AH, especially the incidents of apostasy throughout the Arabian Peninsula, until only the people of Medina, Mecca and Taif remained in Islam. Before the rightly-guided Caliph Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq – may God be pleased with him – declared war and confronted those who refrained from paying zakat and separated between it and prayer, delegations from tribesmen would come to bargain with the Caliph on this matter, but he refused these offers, and eventually announced the confrontation to subdue these The apostates, and eleven armies were expelled from Medina to different parts of the Arabian Peninsula, and these armies were absent for at least 40 days .
In view of this challenge, Abu Bakr – may God be pleased with him – realized the importance of the internal security of the city, which is the capital of the state, and in it were the faces of the Companions of the Emigrants and Ansar, and then Abu Bakr – may God be pleased with him – decided to use Ali bin Abi Talib, Al-Zubayr bin Al-Awwam, Talha bin Obaid Allah and Abd Allah bin Masoud is guarding the outskirts of the city and its outskirts, and he mobilized the remaining residents of the city, warning them that the delegations of the apostates who came to bargain and negotiate have seen the lack of Muslims, and that they should take precautions and their weapons to maintain security in their country .
Gradually, Abu Bakr – may God be pleased with him – realized the importance of the may, and it is from the verb “may” “as”, which is to ask for something at night, and it became said about those who circumambulate at night to guard homes and security, and Abu Bakr – may God be pleased with him – commissioned Abdullah bin Masoud. With this heavy task, he commanded him to search at night, and to patrol by day, i.e. to guard and watch the enemy if he came suddenly, as he also assumed this task during the time of Abu Bakr Omar Ibn Al-Khattab – may God be pleased with him – .
And if Omar Ibn Al-Khattab – may God be pleased with him – took over the task of assasm or assails during the time of Abu Bakr, then during his caliphate he did not leave this position while he was in charge of the caliphate, and he was one of the most famous caliphs touring at night to ensure the security of Muslims and their homes, and Omar sought the help of Abd al-Rahman bin Awf, Muhammad bin Maslama and others to help him in this task, and his stories that he encountered while he was sleeping at night are famous, such as the story of the milk seller who wanted to cheat him and her daughter prevented her from that, and the story of the woman who longed for her husband who was in the army of conquests for more than four months and his awareness of the seriousness of the issue and his He had to solve it quickly, and even put in place a law that the mujahideen should not stay away from their homes and wives for more than four months.
Omar – may God be pleased with him – was the first to allocate a prison for the people of crimes and felonies, he bought the prison house in Mecca from its owner Safwan bin Umayya for four thousand dirhams, then similar prisons were established in the centers of other Islamic cities in Iraq, Egypt, the Levant and others.
The police institution developed during the era of the two Caliphs Othman bin Affan and Ali bin Abi Talib – may God be pleased with them both – as we find from historical facts that the task of the police developed from guarding and maintaining public security to interfering to organize gatherings and facilitating the work of the authorities, when Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib died – May God be pleased with him – the uncle of the Prophet – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him – in the year 32 AH, people crowded to pray for him in Medina, and it was impossible to bury him because of the thousands who attended his funeral, and their coffin surrounded by them, which prompted Caliph Othman bin Affan to send policemen or soldiers to make room for Bani Hashem At least so that they could bury al-Abbas, and the policemen were able to disperse these crowds and complete the funeral ceremonies well.
Then the police institution developed further during the reign of the fourth Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib – may God be pleased with him – especially in light of the difficult circumstances in which he assumed the caliphate after the martyrdom of Othman, the disobedience of Muawiyah, and the departure of Aisha, Talha and Al-Zubayr – may God be pleased with them – to Basra for help. With its men to eliminate the killers of Othman, who had occupied large parts of Medina until the famous Battle of the Camel took place in the year 36 AH, and for this reason and others, Ali – may God be pleased with him – formed a specialized body called the Police, and the head of this body was called “the policeman” who took over the stronghold. Ibn Qais al-Riyahi, and the duties of the police became clear from the night and day shifts to instil security and tranquility, to establish order in Medina, to follow up on people of suspicion and suspicion, to strike at their hands, to monitor markets to inspect weights and scales, to settle disputes between the public, and to guard the caliph, governors, workers, and government institutions such as Bait Al-Mal and others .
This is the story of the emergence of the police in the era of the Prophet and until the end of the time of the Rightly-Guided Caliphate with the martyrdom of Ali – may God be pleased with him – in the year 40 AH, a story in which this institution developed from the concept of guarding and collective and voluntary security to the establishment of a small permanent unit to guard the Prophet, then to guarding Medina, and then to To become an integrated institution to guard and monitor the entire public sphere without violating the rights of individuals and groups.