The coffee tree was not discovered until the fifteenth century AD, and it was discovered by the knowledgeable Sufi Sheikh Abu Bakr bin Abdullah Al-Shazly Al-Aidarous (d. 909 AH / 1504 AD) when he was passing through some of his tours. He saw the coffee tree, suffocated from its fruits, and he liked it. this plant; As he saw in it a night watch, and an activation of worship, so he took it as food and drink, and instructed his followers and disciples to do so, so it spread in Yemen, then in the countries of the Hijaz, then in the Levant and Egypt, and Al-Aidarousi became “the creator of coffee made from coffee brought from Yemen,” according to the description of the historian Ibn al-Imad al-Hanbali ( Died 1089 AH / 1679 AD).
In the year 917 AH / 1511 AD, when the overseer of the Noble Sanctuary in Mecca, the Mamluk Prince Khayr Bey, was passing from the Kaaba to his house, he saw a group on the night of the 23rd of Rabi` al-Awwal celebrating the Prophet’s birthday. He asked about the aforementioned drink, and it was said that this is a drink that was taken in this time, and it was called coffee, cooked from the peel of a grain that comes from the country of Yemen. It is forbidden in the pure Sharia.
This matter worried the supervisor of the Hisba, who is responsible for morals and public morals, so he called on the next day judges, scholars, students of knowledge and others such as the judge of judges Salah Al-Din bin Dhahirah Al-Shafi’i – and the family of Al-Zuhaira had a great deal in fatwa and judiciary in the honorable Mecca at that time – and the judge Najmuddin Ibn Abd al-Wahhab al-Maliki and others, and they began to discuss this new issue, and at the end of the session, the attendees agreed to distinguish between coffee itself and the appearances and conditions that accompany its drinking, but they left it up to the doctors to express their opinion on this “plant” and its effect on the body or Reason, and indeed, the Mamluk prince brought the two largest doctors in Mecca at the time, the two brothers Nour al-Din al-Kazaruni and Ala al-Din al-Kazaruni, who testified that the drink made from cold, dry coffee husks corrupted the moderate body!
But one of the jurists present in that heated session objected to this decision, commenting that coffee was permissible and beneficial, and they replied to him that “if it was permissible, it would have been dragged into disobedience, and every obedience that led to disobedience fell.” Therefore, Prince Khayr Bey issued his decision and the most famous call in Mecca and its suburbs and roads to ban drinking coffee, and the decision was issued on the 28th of Rabi’ Al-Awwal in the year 917 AH, but Khayyir Bey’s decision was the first shot for a century to come, in which the controversy remained heated between supporters and opponents of jurists, judges, and statesmen of the sultans Walis and others.
“Coffee” has been a name for wine since the era of the Umayyads and Abbasids, and it is a term that we see in the stomachs of Arabic dictionaries. Ibn Manzur in Lisan al-Arab, authored nearly two centuries before the discovery of coffee, says: “Coffee: wine, so named because it quenches the drinker’s food, that is, it goes away.” lustfully.” Therefore, the connotations of the word were negative for the general jurists and the people, and soon the supporters showed the truth of the difference between the two “coffees”, as this is coffee that removes the mind, and this coffee activates the memory, and helps to perform tasks!
When the Mamluk governor sent that report to Sultan Qansuh al-Ghouri in Cairo, he ratified what had taken place in that meeting, and forbade drinking it, and soon one of the greatest Islamic jurists of his time, Imam Zakaria al-Ansari (d. 926 AH / 1520 AD), endorsed it. They set out for Al-Ansari, who are a group of Maliki jurists, so the man wanted to find out the truth of the matter, as the author of “Al-Noor Al-Safir on the News of the Tenth Century” tells. An hour of time, and he did not see any change in speech from them or outrageous raptures, but rather he found a little relaxation from them. Soon, Al-Ansari compiled a definitive workbook on the solution.
But this did not like the opponents in Mecca, Cairo and Damascus, such as Sheikh Al-Kazaruni, who wrote a letter prohibiting it. On the other hand, some scholars supported the analysis of coffee, such as Sheikh Abu Bakr Al-Makki, who wrote his letter “Arousing brotherhood by the rule of coffee,” and then replied with another message, “Answering the invitation with the text of coffee.” .
The coffee trade quickly became popular, and even helped the economic rise within the Ottoman Empire, which had taken over the Arab countries at the time, and when Egypt became a main center in the transit trade as an exclusive broker in the “gracious” spice trade between India and Europe for several centuries – which discovered a way Other than Egypt at the end of the Mamluk era is the Cape of Good Hope, which led to the decline of this trade – the cultivation of coffee and its trade restored the momentum once again to the internal trade between the countries of the Ottoman Empire, and we saw that major merchants such as Ismail Abu Taqiah Shahbandar were merchants of Egypt in the seventeenth century AD. Thousands of people earn from it, and Abu Taqia contributed to its popularity by building a café in the center of Cairo at the beginning of that century!
The jurists and writers who support the coffee ornament sang poetry, and wrote in defense of it messages against the objectors in that century, “The Century of Controversy over Coffee,” the tenth AH / sixteenth century CE.