In the various arenas of conflict around the world, no sound is louder than the hum of armed drones. A decade ago, the possession of armed drones was an exclusive right enjoyed by the United States, before new powers stormed the scene, led by China and Israel, and finally Turkey, the new rising star in the world of drones. Over time, the monopoly of drones has been broken and they are used even by non-state actors such as Hezbollah and the Houthi group, and despite this, the United States remains technically superior in this field by a large margin from everyone else, after turning the drone from a mere tool in the arsenal of war to Complete system for gripping the ends of the earth.
Six years later, in encounter could be described scarcely between Republican president and his successor Democrat, in same occasion, any dinner reporters at White House, gave Barack Obama, most charismatic and least Smajh, joke some “degrading” considered as well, directed his speech to band “Jonas Brothers” Those in attendance said, “My daughters Melia and Sasha are big fans, but don’t think of anything, I have two words for you: Predator Drones, and you’ll never expect them.”
Obama’s joke, the godfather of the use of drones called “Drones”, reflects the scale that the Democratic president has attached to the use of killer planes. Although his predecessor, Bush, officially started using them, their use increased ten times during the Obama era. From 57 strikes in two terms of Bush’s presidency, to 563 strikes in two terms of Obama’s presidency, in the clearest coup entered by the use of drones in the form of military wars, from traditional based on direct docking, to an unconventional form that depends on remote targeting, not to mention the coup caused by deadly Drones In the space of the prevailing war and military theories.
The first actual war theorist and the methodological foundation for the “study of war”, the Prussian Carl von Clausewitz, the famous theorist: “War is a form of social existence”, in his classic book “On War”, sees that war is in its essence “a struggle of wills based on violence The first”, that is, war is an extension of politics, and it may be an economic, social and psychological condition, based on violence and conflict, in the service of politics, but this concept did not last long, as air wars, and more so their automation through drones, contributed to the heart of this classic historical concept.
Drones technology was established after World War I, and gradually developed until it reached its climax at the hands of Israeli aviation engineer Abraham Karim, who started his work from a garage in California in the eighties of the last century, and then expanded thanks to grants by the American Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), owner of Initial versions of technologically pioneering projects such as GPS and the Internet, until his work reached today’s global drone leader General Atomics, maker of the world’s most famous, widely used and deadly drone: the Predator, and its more recent colleague, the Reaper, purchased by the CIA, primarily responsible for assassinations using drones
Barack Obama found in drones what he wanted to implement his doctrine based on achieving results without direct contact. He is the one who considered his biggest mistakes his direct participation in Libya, and his best decisions not to participate in Syria, as we learned through his famous dialogue with Jeffrey Goldberg, entitled “ The Obama Doctrine. ” , as the CIA found its way to effectively get rid of its enemies without trials, after it discovered the cost of arresting suspects without charges and their families in prisons around the world, most notably Guantánamo Bay, and this affected the reputation of the United States, which prompted Washington to turn from The policy of “waterboarding” to the policy of “kill and do not arrest”, which represented an assassination of the principle of diplomacy, and a shift to the fore in foreign policy from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the US intelligence and the Ministry of Defense.
These new wars depend on expensive technology, as every hour that a drone is flying in the air costs between 2000-3500 dollars, not to mention the steady increase in the number of hours of flight in the air by 3000% during the years between 2002-2010. The Predator) launched the airspace in Iraq and Afghanistan, and launched thousands of Hellfire missiles, which cost $68,000 each, and so it is understandable that the only untouched defense budget is the drone budget, which has increased by 30%. % from 2008 to 2016, a weapon considered ideal for the tasks of the three functions (3D), the abbreviation of “monotonous, dirty and dangerous”, to provide support for ground forces, surveillance operations, and the killing of targets and suspects, and the accompanying civilians that the US military describes as “collateral damage” ‘, cited numerically in the census Bureau of Investigative Reporting’s .
Civilian casualties from drones
The reason for the great demand for drones is due to their elevation from the level of tracking and monitoring targets only, without the possibility of giving a practical reaction, to the assassination of those targets with surprising speed and high accuracy, demonstrating their maximum effectiveness in the policy of “beheading”, a name under which the largest hunt operations were carried out. It also paved the way for the end of the largest organization’s branch, “Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula,” by assassinating its senior leaders in Yemen, without human cost, from thousands of miles away, and without the trouble of obtaining official permission to penetrate Atmosphere.
While a good number of American industrial sectors are struggling to stay afloat; One industry sector remained unscathed: high-tech, modern warfare companies, which Ashton Carter, the former US Secretary of Defense in the Obama administration and chief weapons procurement official at the Department of Defense, describes as a “thriving market.”
It is expected that the total global spending on research and manufacturing drones will exceed $ 94 billion, between 2011-2020, and it will not be limited to the United States only, but countries such as Israel, China and Turkey in particular, but American companies will remain at the fore in this domain until recently, most likely.
One of the biggest examples of this forefront is General Atomics, the largest manufacturer of the famous military drones: the Predator and Reaper, where 90% of the company’s $661.6 million profit in 2010 came from sales to the Pentagon. It has the largest facility dedicated to the manufacture of drones in the world, on an area of 85 hectares in California, between 2000-2010, more than $2.4 billion worth of equipment for the US military, mostly drones, of which it sold more than 430 Predators and Reaper between 1994-2010, as well as agreement on upcoming trial versions, such as the Predator Sea Avenger.
This is not the only investment for the small business. Boasts James Blue, director “General Atomics” Executive, said: “We have, for our size, political capital more influential than can think”, as company sponsored for years senior members Congress, and spent lavishly on their campaigns and activities more than any other company In addition to seeking to get out of America to other countries, after the US government approved in July 2010 to allow the export of some copies of drones. After General Atomics comes AeroVision, which has tripled its market value from $30 million to $300 million in a decade, 85% of which is drone sales to the U.S. government, and has established itself as a giant in the U.S. drone industry. Small pilot.
Of course, major defense companies have not exited this market. Raytheon, for example, one of the five largest federal contractors in the United States, continues to provide aircraft software that enables Nevada missile operators to have direct access to actual intelligence, and has worked on some types of aircraft. The missiles used in the Drones, the most important of which are the Paveway missiles, a competitor to the Hellfire missiles produced by the other global defense giant, Lockheed Martin, which is used in Predator aircraft, in addition to the civil and military aircraft industry giant, “Boeing”, which entered this market with all its capabilities. It also has, and has patented, aircraft that are essentially self-driving, and other large and small companies, and private government research, from the major agencies dedicated to it: (DARPA).
Giora Katz, vice president of Israel’s Rafael Advanced Defense Systems, expects that a third of Israel’s military equipment will be entirely electronic and without human intervention by 2025, and the Israeli government signed an agreement in 2009 to sell $50 million worth of drones to Israel. Russia, followed by talks to conclude another deal worth $ 100 million, part of a comprehensive contract worth $ 400 million, as Turkey uses Israeli-made planes to monitor the Kurds in northern Iraq, and India also uses them as part of a long arms race with neighboring Pakistan, which manufactured a local plane without A pilot, in addition to the Israeli cooperation with the British to manufacture the awaited British aircraft “Watch Keeper”.
Other than the United States and Israel, China surprised a number of Western officials by unveiling at least 25 different types of unmanned aerial vehicles in November 2010, including two drones, the Terodactyl and the Sour Dragon, which simulate the Predator, and there is also Turkey The rising star in the world of armed drones, which has dazzled the world with its ability to manufacture aircraft with superior combat capabilities at a relatively cheap price, and has proven the effectiveness of its aircraft in various battlefields from Libya to Azerbaijan. Without these, Iran and about 86 countries, including eight countries with armed drones, entered the market in a modest and principled manner, in addition to a number of non-state actors, such as “Hezbollah” and the Yemeni Houthi group, which breaks the monopoly and changes the rules of the game.
Countries that have armed drones
In one of his famous warnings about the consequences of the September 11 attacks; Former US President George Bush said that the United States declared “a war of a new kind, a war that requires us to engage in global fishing”, in contravention with the concept of traditional war, and makes the society targeted by this fishing a society of prey for hunters, and makes the world a global battlefield, without recognition With geographical borders, and without the need for conflict and direct friction, as described by the French philosopher Gregoire Chamayo, who discusses the ethical and philosophical consequences of the uses of drones in his book “The Theory of Drones”.
In his book, Shamayo asks about the consequences of using drones: “What does this mean for the moral basis of war? Does the absence of an exchange of fire nullify the idea that war must be moral and just? Then what about the law of war itself? Drones cannot take prisoners or Caring for the wounded of the enemy? And what about the presumption of innocence? That is, every person accused of a crime is presumed innocent of it until proven guilty. Perhaps the most important question is: Can some governments not one day begin to use deadly aircraft not only in wars waged against foreigners in distant countries? , but also within their own countries against their own citizens?
Indeed, the first people affected by the drones are the communities targeted by these drones, whose moans remind them of death. In addition to death and direct injuries, as a result of “collateral damage”; These societies live in a state of constant terror and panic in the villages and cities that are always under surveillance, loaded with eternal hatred for these planes and their manufacturers and operators and those who cause their targeting, which raises questions about the feasibility of using them in the fight against terrorism, rather than its continuation, as one day after President Obama’s joke, on 1 In May 2010, which we started with, the Pakistani Faisal Shahrazad’s attempt to detonate a car bomb in Times Square in New York failed, an attempt that Faisal said was motivated by “drones”, which residents of the Iraqi city of Mosul considered the greatest danger, and the most dangerous of ” state organization itself.
But this is the clear purpose of the Drones. Its essence is to push the whole world, not just the targeted communities, under the umbrella of censorship, where everything that happens is monitored, scrutinized and recorded for the benefit of global authorities and intelligence, for example; Congress authorized Customs and Border Protection in 2005 to purchase unarmed Predators to monitor the border and track illegal immigrants and smugglers, and Miami police also purchased a drone they said was for “surveillance, not spy,” which raises questions about privacy and individuality in these expanses of space.
Retired Colonel Chris Chambliss describes the job of the drone operator: “On the way here, you prepare for the aerial combat part of your life, and on the way home you prepare for the soccer part of it, and kill in between.” Colonel Champels, of Creech Air Force Base in Nevada, where most drones are operated, as well as Nellis Air Force Base, also nearby, could direct a predatory predator using Hellfire to kill “suspects” anywhere in the world, then He returns home, watches his favorite series, and plays with his son and daughter, after the suspect lost his sons as “collateral damage”, using what they call “the TV of death”.
In addition to military pilots, a “PlayStation kill mentality” arose in operator pilots trained in 21st century techniques, with the controller set up similar to a PlayStation game, according to PW Singer in his book, Wired for War, opening the way for It’s called a “kill chain,” in which private contractors with the Department of Defense work as technicians, mechanics, intelligence analysts, and drone operators, and are subject to their own companies, not the state.
Although the pilots who bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not see the effects of the bomb immediately after it was dropped, those who operate the drones see what is going on in detail. His son or daughter or one of the village children, which leaves severe psychological effects, most notably “post-traumatic stress disorder”, similar to what affects the targeted victims themselves, effects that will end soon after the full automation of armed drones, and their delivery to machines that do not have emotions or feelings of any kind. Type.
In the approach of former US Attorney General Eric Holder to the “Drones Legal Issues Approach”, in March 2012, in a speech at Northwestern University, Holder said that “the Constitution has empowered the President to protect the nation from any threat of imminent attack,” to which he responded, Ironically, it’s not the legal community that relies on the National Defense Authorization Act for these killings, but the satirist presenter Stephen Colbert, who sighed, “If we are to win our perpetual war with terror, we must suffer the losses, as fate willed it.” The constitution is among them.
Besides the Constitution, the United States appears to be losing its founding principles as well. In a Washington Post poll, the American people not only ignored the attacks, but supported them as well. Among them, 79% supported the use of aircraft against terrorism suspects, even if they were US citizens living in other countries. A kind of entertainment that soldiers call “the prostitution of war”, after the Ministry of Defense began publishing videos of operations on the Internet, as a way to promote drones internally, and to “terrorize the enemy externally.”
There is no longer a need to unite the country in a conflict, or to call for sacrifices, or to conduct strenuous debates in Congress, since the Drones preserve the human losses of soldiers, and all that is required is a mere decision from the American president who determines who should be put on the kill list and agree to target him It seems that war has become the end and the means for itself, without controls or deterrents of any kind, because the machine does not know these human limits, and humans suffice for that.