Dr. Walid Fitaihi stated that “all Arab thinkers today are in one way or another disciples of Malik bin Nabi.” He praised Malik, Professor Muhammad al-Mubarak, saying, “I do not say that he is the “son of a prophet,” but I say that he draws from the whiffs of prophecy and the springs of eternal truth.” Distinguished and unique intellectual production that earned Malik all this prestige among Arab thinkers and the world at large. We discuss this path and some of its distinguished intellectual heritage in the following two paragraphs: Malik bin Nabi, a witness of the century
Malik bin Nabi was born on the fifth of Dhu al-Qaeda 1323 AH corresponding to January 1, 1905 AD in the city of Constantine in eastern Algeria, but he spent his early years in the city of Tessa because his father worked in the judiciary in this state. Male started his studies in Tessa in a Quranic school and then took the rest of the sciences at the only French school in the city, beginning in 1913. Two years later, he returned to his hometown of Constantine to continue studying at Jules Ferry School, then at another Quranic school in the same city, where after studying there for three years, he obtained a certificate of completion in 1925 AD. Mali Bennie visited France on a first trip, after which he quickly returned to Algeria to work as his father in the Afoul court in the state of Although in central Algeria in 1927 AD and then took the same position in a court in the state of Mali in the northeast of the country. In the midst of his travels throughout Algeria, Bennie met the pioneer of the scientific renaissance, Sheikh Abdel Hamid Ben Wadis for the first time in 1928 AD.
All these experiences allowed Malik to see the intellectual heritage of Western civilization and learn more about the details of the daily life of European peoples and their various customs, especially after he moved to work in Germany in the summer of 1942 AD, to return again to France at the end of 1943 AD, and after his return to France only a few months until he and his wife were arrested on charges of cooperation With the German occupier, the two countries in this period are living on the impact of the Second World War. The Algerian revolution erupted in 1954 AD, the pressure on the Algerian community in France intensified, and Malik was forced to move to Cairo.Malik returned to Algeria after independence in 1962, and was appointed Director of Higher Education, a position he held until 1967 AD to resign from it and devote himself to writing later until he died on October 31, 1973 AD. He left behind a valuable collection of books and a huge amount of ideas and theories, we highlight some of them In the next paragraph. Malik’s thought..a philosophy of civilization and the conscience of a nation
The Islamic religion and the Noble Qur’an were the first inspiration for Malik on his journey, so he gave his first lecture in France entitled “Why are we Muslims”, then he wrote his first book in French, the book “The Qur’anic Phenomenon” in 1946 AD, after which he knocked on a new literary chapter on him and on all Algerian heritage by launching the first Algerian novel In French, “Labbaik.. Pilgrimage of the Poor” was followed by his most prominent book in the “Problems of Civilization” series, which he launched in 1948 AD and chose the name “Conditions of the Renaissance”, in which he highlighted the role of “ignorance” and its contribution to the decline and stagnation that prevailed in the Islamic world: “And if paganism in Islam looked at ignorance, because ignorance in reality is pagan, because it does not instill ideas but rather sets up idols. It was not by chance that primitive peoples were naive pagans.. And from the laws of God in his creation that when the idea disappears, the idol emerges, and vice versa sometimes.” The concept of the “civilization cycle”And analyze its components. Civilization according to Malik is a person, dust, and time. However, these components must have a factor that mixes them in order to interact and create “civilization,” which is what he expressed in the belief or “religious idea.”
As for the constituent stages of the “civilization cycle,” he made it three, the first of which is the rise and construction, a stage characterized by the subordination of human instincts to the “soul” and then the stage of stability in which “reason” advances to clarify the philosophy upon which that civilization is based, so it matures, stabilizes, and prevails.. Then soon The “instinct” will rise again to destroy the structure of the mind and neglect the logic on which the foundations of that civilization were built, so the stage of stagnation and decline comes, and the difference between all these stages is psychological and social values, their manifestations and developments. Malik used in this book for the first time the term “colonization”, through which he wanted to clarify that colonialism is not the reason for the backwardness of the colonized countries, but rather it is the inevitable result of years of demolition of all the components of civilization in these countries.
After settling in Cairo and developing his level in the Arabic language, Malik reviewed his books that were translated into them. At the same time, he continued to write in his deep organized way, this time getting more involved in planning and building. In the same year, he launched the book “The Destination of the Islamic World” and then the book “The African-Asian Idea” after it. Two years later, the “Islamic Commonwealth Idea” two years later. In the year 1959 AD, Malik published one of his most prominent books in the series “Problems of Civilization,” which is the book “The Problem of Culture,” in which he put social cohesion and unity among Muslims as a key factor for restoring the glory of Islamic civilization and advancing it. But what Islam.. Islam that moves in our minds and behavior and that is resurrected in the form of social Islam..This strength of cohesion is worthy of making up for us our desired civilization, and in its hand is a guarantee for that, a thousand-year-old experience, and a civilization that was born on a barren land among the Bedouins, men of instinct and the desert.”
As for his employment as Director of Higher Education after his return to Algeria, he wrote a book entitled “Algerian Horizons” and then, after his resignation from this position, began writing his memoirs “Memoirs of a Witness to the Century.” He also wrote during this period: “The Problem of Ideas in the Islamic World” trying to find a reservoir The disease in a Muslim world close to the era of a hateful colonialism in which it came to the worlds of “ideas and things.” One of the most important causes mentioned was “the persistence of the spirit of resistance to colonialism and its hatred” despite its departure from many Muslim countries, as well as the “absence of the spirit of action” and the spread of verbal battles among the class The intellectual: “And this is one of their elders, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. He personally gave us the evidence when he assured us: The responsibility of education is dangerous, as you should not let hatred take root in the hearts and minds of the new generation in India under the guise of anti-colonialism.”
In Bennabi’s writings, his precise balance between the power of reason and its implementation, the depth and comprehensiveness of the proposition, and pure faith sentiment, as well as his distinction between “abstract reason” and “applied reason” and the placement of their employment and their necessity in every place or stage, appears in Bennabi’s writings. The novel and literary writings, but the condition of his nation distracted him from it, so he preferred to direct all his focus and his sense of writing so that he would be the conscience of a scholar floundering between “guidance and wandering.” Sometimes he used to say, “I will return after thirty years and people will understand me,” hoping to find someone who will draw inspiration from his ideas from among the owners of “practical logic” to get our country out of the “intellectual conflict” and face the challenges that “Muslims in a world” live in.Today and purify it from the accumulated “mold” that hinders its movement and revival.