The presence of remains in a prehistoric cemetery reveals incidents of violence or armed conflict on the banks of the Nile. A study conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research demonstrated the occurrence of frequent clashes using sharp weapons for reasons that are still unknown.
The skeletons discovered in Jabal al-Sahaba in Wadi Halfa, northern Sudan, show the effects of many wounds resulting from the use of these weapons, which did not all heal, indicating the recurrence of armed clashes in the Nile Valley, and some anthropologists believe that the deaths were related to environmental pressures and possibly conflict. On the resource. Read also A call to protect the Meroe pyramids and the monuments of Al-Bajrawiya .. Sudan appeals to UNESCO to save its monuments from floods Ancient murals in Sudan … the title of a civilization that extended to the Levant and competed with the Romans and Persians
The author believes that the origin of the war may go back to an older history, and these remains represent the oldest known evidence of prehistoric clashes, and reveal new secrets, the details of which were published as part of a study conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research, in cooperation with the British Museum in London.
He also mentioned that the Jabal Al-Sahaba site – which contains evidence of these ancient conflicts – no longer exists today because of the Aswan Dam Lake, which completely flooded the site in the 1960s, but, before that, the remains of 61 people were recovered.
According to Isabelle Krefcourt, a researcher at the French National Center and at the University of Bordeaux, and the first researcher in the study published by the “Scientific Reports” magazine, the Jabal Al-Sahaba site represents an “exceptional case,” as the discovery of remains in such a good condition that revealed a lot of information “was not Easy. “
Attacks against men, women and children
In 1968, a study of the remains – found in Jabal Al-Sahaba – found scars on the bones left by sharp projectiles. While some considered it mere funeral rites, others assumed that it belonged to the victims of a single massacre. But using modern methods, the study – conducted by the French Center for Scientific Research – proved that some wounds were healed before death, along with the difference in the date of burial, which means that each of them was the victim of separate clashes during his life.
“We favor the hypothesis of war, given this violence,” said Kriffkor. “But this war was not based on a direct collision between two armies, but was limited to a series of planned attacks, raids and ambushes.” By studying the remains in this cemetery, it is likely that the attacks have occurred on several generations, targeting men, women, and even children. The scars on the bones also indicate that the attackers did not hesitate to target their victims from the back.
The weapons used in prehistoric times were sharp, and some included projectiles attached to or between bones. “The arms were made with a pointed tip to penetrate the body quickly and cause severe bleeding,” says Kriffkor.
During attacks, the pelvis, upper legs and spine, and the head are targeted for younger victims. Besides knowing how to make effective weapons, prehistoric men and women “aimed well”. t
Conflict over resources
Judging from the way they carved them, the researchers concluded that the weapons belong to the “Gaddan culture” common to the societies that lived on the banks of the Nile in Upper Egypt. For victims, it is not possible to determine which ethnic group they belong to among the different groups that lived in that area.
The “Kadan culture” extended in the era between 9-13 thousand years BC and in the Middle Stone Age, in the area of present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan, where the population lived on hunting, gathering food, preparing and consuming wild herbs and grains, and caring for the local plant life.
According to the study, competition and the seizure of resources are among the reasons behind the outbreak of wars in prehistoric times. “The region was small, and there were few food resources available in it other than those provided by the Nile River,” Kriffkor explained. “The climate has witnessed, since about 15 thousand years, irregular changes, which means that the presence of many human groups in a small area, with the need for Adapting to a lack of resources has created tensions.
It is difficult to reach definitive conclusions about the true motives behind the armed conflicts in Jabal al-Sahaba, in the absence of hard evidence. Kriffkor does not consider it necessary to generalize these examples of prehistoric wars that were known for their extreme diversity, taking into account the cultural or behavioral relationships that led to the rivalry of groups.