Intelligence arose in the history of the Islamic state since the Prophet’s era as a result of the growing hostility of Arab tribes in the Arabian Peninsula against Muslims and Islam, as well as the regional geography that was occupied by the Persians and the Romans. Obtaining information about the enemy, sorting this information, examining it, dividing it, assessing its validity, interpreting this information and drawing conclusions from it. This matter is often called “intelligence” or “intelligence”.
And the one who looks at the biography of the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – and his hadiths will find that this work was done by the Prophet – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him – in his conquests and battles and other things in his internal and regional relations. May God be pleased with him – in the second year of the emigration, twelve men from the emigrants, and he provided him with a sealed book, ordered him not to look at it until he had walked for two days and reached a known location that he specified for him. You looked in this book of my book, so go on in the name of God and His blessings, do not compel any of your companions to walk with you, and go with those who follow you until you come to the (area) of the belly of a palm tree and monitor the caravan of Quraish and teach us of their news”.
Examples from the biography of the Prophet, the Sunnah, the history of the Rashidun and those who followed them from the Umayyads, the Abbasids, and even the Ottomans are full of news and stories that demonstrate the development of this apparatus, which became one of the important tools of this state, peace and war. An “eye” and a “spy” to serve his country in other hostile countries.
The Caliph Omar Ibn Al-Khattab – may God be pleased with him – also recruited a Muslim woman to reveal a murder that took place in Medina during his caliphate. And his assistants, and a year after the occurrence of that crime, a child was found lying in the place of that murdered man, and Umar felt with his firasah that there was a connection between the two crimes, and here he summoned a woman from the city’s residents and assigned her to raise and care for the boy, and above that she had to watch the movements of the women who might come to visit this boy. Any woman who showed eagerness and longing in hugging and kissing, she must come immediately and tell him about her, in return for a fee he specified for her.
Indeed, it did not take long for a little maidservant to come and say to that woman, the nanny and the informant, “My madam has sent me to you to send the boy to see him and bring him back to you.” But the woman recruited by Omar – may God be pleased with him – insisted on accompanying the boy to that woman who wanted to see him, so she came to her, and the maid took the boy and gave him to her mistress. This woman, the secret informant, moved to Caliph Umar and provided him with this important information.
The Caliph verified this information, then took permission from the father of this Ansar woman, who was one of the senior sheikhs of the Ansar and the Companions, to interrogate her. That young man who was found lying on the side of the road a year ago, and she explained to him that she had killed him, obliged to defend herself and her honor, and showed him that she had fallen victim to a cunning old woman who was frequenting her and she was doing her command in the place of the mother, and she had the status of the girl, until that time passed This old woman asked permission to leave, and asked to have a daughter with her until she returned from her travels, so I went to her son, Amard, without a beard, so she put him in the shape of a maidservant and brought him to her, and she did not doubt that he was a maidservant. She was sleeping, so she killed him, and threw him on the road, but the effect of this assault was that boy who had put him and then put him in the place of the dead man, and swore to him that she was truthful in her narration, so he believed her, then advised her and prayed for her .
In the era of the Umayyad state, many political and military leaders became aware of the role of women and their intelligence recruitment to serve his project. When Abdullah bin Al-Zubair bin Al-Awwam – may God be pleased with him – (d. 73 AH) sent his brother, Musab bin Al-Zubayr to Iraq, he was able to seize her and stand firm against the Umayyad state Some of the senior tribal leaders, headed by Al-Ahnaf bin Qais, the leader and master of the many tribes of Bani Tamim, had hesitated to continue supporting Abdullah bin Al-Zubayr and his brother Musab, the Emir of Iraq against Abdul Malik bin Marwan, and here Musab sent to Al-Ahnaf’s maidservant, who had Al-Zubarah Tahfa. And gifts and a thousand dirhams in order to persuade Al-Ahnaf to join his army against the Umayyads, so that maid cleverly and cunningly came to Al-Ahnaf and started crying, so he said: What makes you cry? She said: The women lent me, so they said: Our men went out and your master cowardly, so he was terrified, and went out to support Musab .
In the following eras, the Abbasid and Ayyubid states took care of women and recruited them to work in their intelligence apparatus, due to the large number of revolutions, strife and civil wars, as well as external enemies. It was mentioned that the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma’mun had one thousand seven hundred elderly women with whom he inspected the conditions of people, especially criminals, stubborn ones, and those who corrupt the sanctuary of Muslims, and he used to sit at the caliphate’s house until their news came to him.
When the Ayyubid state was established in Egypt and the Levant and took upon itself to resist the Crusader tide and purify the Islamic countries from the clutches of this occupation, Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi and his aides took all the energies to achieve this goal, so women took an important position in their intelligence services, and it was not only the recruitment of women Not only Muslim women, but also European women from the crusaders who are trusted, it is reported that the great King Isa bin Al-Malik Al-Adil Al-Ayyub (d. 625 AH), the Emir of Damascus, was using some of the women of the Crusaders to know the news of their armies and men in return for huge financial payments, so they sent him news of movement The Crusader armies first hand, which missed the Crusaders in many cases to surprise the Ayyubid armies in the Levant. Indeed, one of them revealed a dangerous military plan of Emperor Frederick II, King of Germany and the leader of the Crusaders in the Sixth Crusade, through which he aimed to surprise the Ayyubid armies and occupy Damascus, thanks to this The information al-Muazzam Isa was able to protect his city with an advanced attack on the enemy.
Indeed, Sultan Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi was able to recruit the wife of one of the most important Crusaders leaders and their princes before the Battle of Hattin and the liberation of Jerusalem in 583 AH. First of all, he, in turn, would appreciate this information and give her the most precious and valuable gifts.
These are some glimpses of the contributions of women to the intelligence apparatus in the successive Islamic countries since the era of the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – until the time of Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi. Undoubtedly, they played brilliant roles in exposing the movements of the enemy to Muslims, and showing their weaknesses, and they had the greatest impact on the success of The migration of the Prophet – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him – and then the victory of Islam later, and even in the liberation of Jerusalem at the hands of Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi, and these are roles that historians and general readers rarely addressed and were aware of their importance!